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Ideology and Soviet Industrialization

by Timothy W. Luke
Publisher: Praeger
Release Date: 1985
Genre: Business & Economics
Pages: 176 pages
ISBN 13: 0877882487
ISBN 10: 9780877882480
Format: PDF, ePUB, MOBI, Audiobooks, Kindle


Synopsis : Ideology and Soviet Industrialization written by Timothy W. Luke, published by Praeger which was released on 1985. Download Ideology and Soviet Industrialization Books now! Available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. --

Ideology and Soviet Industrialization
Language: en
Pages: 283
Authors: Timothy W. Luke
Categories: Business & Economics
Type: BOOK - Published: 1985 - Publisher: Praeger

Books about Ideology and Soviet Industrialization
Time and Soviet Industrialization
Language: en
Pages: 746
Authors: Stephen Earl Hanson
Categories: Business & Economics
Type: BOOK - Published: 1991 - Publisher:

Books about Time and Soviet Industrialization
Ideology, Heroism, and Industrialization
Language: en
Pages: 424
Authors: Marcia Mueller
Categories: Stakhanov movement
Type: BOOK - Published: 1984 - Publisher:

"This thesis argues that the Stakhanovite movement in the U.S.S.R. functioned as a hero system, manipulated by Stalin, to meet the needs of a rapidly industrializing socialist economy, Research for the thesis proved difficult, for the literature on Stakhanovism is meager and often tendentious, Therefore, emphasis is placed upon claims made about the movement, rather than upon actual production records and statistics. Since no books have been written on Stakhanovism in English and no doctoral dissertations or other theses have been recorded with University Hicrofilms International. the information for this paper has been gleaned from early works and dissertations on Soviet history and industry. In 1928, under Stalin's leadership, the Soviet Union began a series of Five-Year Plans for rapid industrialization. During the time of the Cultural Revolution (1928-1931), the country's economic policies were based upon proletarianization, i.e., upon strict equality of wages, increased educational opportunities for workers and their children, and revolutionary enthusiasm (expressed through the work of shock brigades) in the factories. As the plan progressed, however, Stalin and party leaders had to come to terms with the incongruity between the principles of r rxism and the requirements of industrialization. Marx called for an egalitarian society, free from state and bureaucratic oppression and without the sense of alienation arising from extreme division of labor. Marx believed that when the ownership of the means of production passed from the hands of capitalists to the hands of workers, the proletariat, the evils of social and economic injustice would end. However, the evils Marx condemned arose not only from the capitalist ownership of the means of production, but also from the very nature of the production process itself and its organizational matrix. Industrial firms are complex, or bureaucratic, organizations, which demand hierarchical structures of authority, experts with specialized knowledge, division of labor for the performance of complex and varied tasks, and a system of incentives to motivate workers to comply with and strive for organizational goals. Marx's egalitarian ideals and his hope that each worker could become pro-ficient in all jobs, including management, were clearly unrealistic when viewed in the light of industrial imperatives. Beginning in 193G, Stalin prepared tb reconcile Marxist theory with industrial needs. He said that immediate hopes for world-wide Marxist revolutions must be abandoned, and that for the present, the Soviet Union had to continue to str ggle towards communism alone. Before that utopian stage could be reached, however, the country had to pass through the stage of socialism. Thus, socialism was to be what Anthony F.C. Wallace calls a transfer culture, comprising the policies to be carried out and the interim goals to be achieved before the goal culture, communism, could be attained. Stalin declared that during the stage of socialism there could be no equality of wages or consumption because the productive capacity of the country was too low. He moved away from deterministic inter- pretations of Marxist doctrine and deterministic theories of social science toward teleological and individualistic interpretations, which supported his policies encouraging personal achievement and unequal rewards. With the call for socialism in one country, Stalin also resurrected the best from Russia's past. He extolled old heroes and old traditions to increase the pride and patriotism of Soviet citizens. He called upon writers to portray exemplary role models with the qualities needed by the new Soviet man: strength, dedication, discipline, perseverance, and initiative. The model "new Soviet man" emerged in August, 1935, when Alexei Grigor'evich Stakhanov re-organized the tasks of his work crew and set a new cutting record--seven times greater than the norm--in his Donbas mine. As word of Stakhanov's achievement spread, workers in other industries also began setting new records and increasing production norms. Thus was the Stakhanovite movement born. Stalin gave Stakhanovism his enthusiastic support, and soon the Stakhanovites were national heroes. They were glorified by the media; they were awarded medals and honors; they were given higher wages and more perquisites than ordinary workers. In turn, the movement developed a new attitude toward labor and encouraged new forms of task organization. The prestige surrounding Stakhanovite achievement evoked a normative commitment to work itself and led to a work ethic in a country which had never experienced the Reformation and the connection between Protestant aspirations and developing capitalism. The Stakhanovites increased their output by rationalizing the production process in a manner similar to that of the scientific management experts in the West. Stakhanovite methods were then used to push the economy forward. Stalin also found other uses for Stakhanovism. He believed that enthusiasm from below could be an antidote to what he perceived as apathy and inertia in the upper levels of Soviet industrial organizations. Hany managers were undereducated "Old Bolsheviks" who had participated in the revolution, but who had no experience in running large industries. They tended to hide behind bureaucratic rules and regulations to avoid blame for production problems and failures, many of the latter actually resulting from the flaws in centralized planning. Stalin, blaming the managers rather than the unrealistic plans, encouraged the Stakhanovites to force up output from below and set and example for all workers. Stakhanovism was also used to counteract technocratic tendencies on the part of "bourgeois" experts, i.e., the engineers who had been educated during the tsarist regime. The "bourgeois" experts had not been supporters of the Bolsheviks, and after the revolution, they were suspected (anc sometimes accused) of industrial sabotage. By the end of the 1920's, many of the "bourgeois" engineers were developing a professional ideology calling for more control over all aspects of technology, including industrial planning and production. Their control over powerful, modern technologies and over ill-educated Red managers made the "bourgeois" engineers look like a threat to party domination. Until the new Red specialists were through school, properly educated in technology and properly indoctrinated in Marxist and Stalinist ideology, competent workers from the bench were promoted to higher positions. The Stakhanovites' completion of technical training programs and their work experience made them more qualified than many Red managers. Their position as culture heroes in Soviet society made them loyal to the party and to Stalin, with whom they shared a symbolic, familial relationship. Therefore, they were safe candidates for promotion into positions where they could counteract any attempts of technocratic hegemony by the "bourgeois" engineers. The fame and influence of the Stakhanovites were great until 1939. A Variety of reasons for the decline of the movement could be advanced, but one is especially probable: The Red specialists, in large numbers, were finishing school and ready to assume responsibility over industry. Hard workers, such as the Stakhanovites, continued to be praised and rewarded, but the new emphasis was on formal technical education and rigorous political indoctrination. Stalin's use of prestige and heroism as an incentive system, it is argued, quite likely sprang from his own fascination with and desire for herosim, as well as from the needs of the country's socialist economy. The demand for work incentives in socialist economies continues to pose problems for Marxist leaders. How those leaders meet the demands could provide more material for future studies in comparative communism"--Document.
Behemoth: A History of the Factory and the Making of the Modern World
Language: en
Pages: 464
Authors: Joshua B. Freeman
Categories: History
Type: BOOK - Published: 2018-02-27 - Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company

“Freeman’s rich and ambitious Behemoth depicts a world in retreat that still looms large in the national imagination.… More than an economic history, or a chronicle of architectural feats and labor movements.”—Jennifer Szalai, New York Times In an accessible and timely work of scholarship, celebrated historian Joshua B. Freeman tells the story of the factory and examines how it has reflected both our dreams and our nightmares of industrialization and social change. He whisks readers from the early textile mills that powered the Industrial Revolution to the factory towns of New England to today’s behemoths making sneakers, toys, and cellphones in China and Vietnam. Behemoth offers a piercing perspective on how factories have shaped our societies and the challenges we face now.
An Ideology in Power
Language: en
Pages: 406
Authors: Bertram Wolfe
Categories: History
Type: BOOK - Published: 2017-02-14 - Publisher: Routledge

Cover -- Half Title -- New Title Page -- Copyright Page -- Original Title Page -- Contents -- Foreword -- PART I The Ideology: From Marxism to Marxism-Leninism -- I Marxism and the Russian Revolution -- II Backwardness and Industrialization in RussianHistory and Thought -- III Das Kapital One Hundred Years Later -- PART II War as the Womb of Revolution -- I. War Comes to Russia -- II. War Comes to Russia-in-Exile -- III. Titans Locked in Combat -- IV. The Triple Power: The Role of the Barracksand the Street -- PART III Permanent Dictatorship and the Problem of Legitimacy -- I. Society and the State -- II. Lenin, the Architect of Twentieth-CenturyTotalitarianism -- III. The Durability of Despotism in the Soviet System -- IV. The Struggle for the Succession -- V. The Age of the Diminishing Dictators -- PART V Proletarian Dictatorship as a Higher Form of Democracy -- I. Prometheus Bound -- II. The Dark Side of the Moon -- III. The Forced Labor Reform after Stalin's Death -- IV. Elections under the Dictatorship -- PART V The Conditioning of Culture -- I. Operation Rewrite: The Agony of the SovietHistorian -- II. Party Histories from Lenin to Khrushchev -- III. Science Joins the Party -- IV. Culture and Communist Criticism -- V. Some Wonders of the Russian Tongue -- VI. The Great Blackout -- PART VI Problems of Foreign Policy -- I. Communist Ideology and Soviet Foreign Policy -- II. Poland: The Acid Test of a People's Peace -- III. The Convergence Theory in Historical Perspective -- INDEX
Time and Revolution
Language: en
Pages: 258
Authors: Stephen E. Hanson
Categories: Social Science
Type: BOOK - Published: 1997-01-01 - Publisher: Univ of North Carolina Press

Stephen Hanson traces the influence of the Marxist conception of time in Soviet politics from Lenin to Gorbachev. He argues that the history of Marxism and Leninism reveals an unsuccessful revolutionary effort to reorder the human relationship with time a
Stalin's Railroad
Language: en
Pages: 400
Authors: Matthew J. Payne
Categories: History
Type: BOOK - Published: 2001-12-16 - Publisher: University of Pittsburgh Press

The Turkestano-Siberian Railroad, or Turksib, was one of the great construction projects of the Soviet Union’s First Five-Year Plan. As the major icon to ending the economic "backwardness" of the USSR’s minority republics, it stood apart from similar efforts as one of the most potent metaphors for the creation of a unified socialist nation. Built between December 1926 and January 1931 by nearly 50,000 workers and at a cost of more 161 million rubles, Turksib embodied the Bolsheviks’ commitment to end ethnic inequality and promote cultural revolution in one the far-flung corners of the old Tsarist Empire, Kazakhstan. Trumpeted as the "forge of the Kazakh proletariat," the railroad was to create a native working class, bringing not only trains to the steppes, but also the Revolution. In the first in-depth study of this grand project, Matthew Payne explores the transformation of its builders in Turksib’s crucible of class war, race riots, state purges, and the brutal struggle of everyday life. In the battle for the souls of the nation’s engineers, as well as the racial and ethnic conflicts that swirled, far from Moscow, around Stalin’s vast campaign of industrialization, he finds a microcosm of the early Soviet Union.
North American Critical Theory After Postmodernism
Language: en
Pages: 249
Authors: P. Nickel
Categories: Political Science
Type: BOOK - Published: 2012-08-21 - Publisher: Springer

In a series of interviews this book explores the formative experiences of a generation of critical theorists whose work originated in the midst of what has been called 'the postmodern turn,' including discussions of their views on the evolution of critical theory over the past 30 years and their assessment of contemporary politics.
North American Critical Theory After Postmodernism
Language: en
Pages: 249
Authors: Patricia Mooney Nickel
Categories: Political Science
Type: BOOK - Published: 2012-08-21 - Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan

North American Critical Theory after Postmodernism-- P.M.Nickel Timothy W. Luke Douglas Kellner Craig Calhoun Seyla Benhabib Andrew Arato Ben Agger Nancy Fraser Robert J. Antonio Epilogue-- P.M.Nickel.
The Danwei: Changing Chinese Workplace in Historical and Comparative Perspective
Language: en
Pages: 270
Authors: Xiaobo
Categories: Business & Economics
Type: BOOK - Published: 2015-02-24 - Publisher: Routledge

The danwei, or work unit, occupies a central place in Chinese society. To understand Chinese politics demands a better understanding of this system. This volume provides a systematic study of the danwei system and addresses a variety of questions from historical and comparative perspectives.
Language: en
Authors: Timothy W. Luke
Categories: Communism
Type: BOOK - Published: 1981 - Publisher:

Russia's Long Twentieth Century
Language: en
Pages: 290
Authors: Choi Chatterjee, Lisa A. Kirschenbaum, Deborah A. Field
Categories: History
Type: BOOK - Published: 2016-05-20 - Publisher: Routledge

Covering the sweep of Russian history from empire to Soviet Union to post-Soviet state, Russia's Long Twentieth Century is a comprehensive yet accessible textbook that situates modern Russia in the context of world history and encourages students to analyse the ways in which citizens learnt to live within its system and create distinctly Soviet identities from its structures and ideologies. Chronologically organised but moving beyond the traditional Cold War framework, this book covers topics such as the accelerating social, economic and political shifts in the Russian empire before the Revolution of 1905, the construction of the socialist order under Bolshevik government, and the development of a new state structure, political ideology and foreign policy in the decades since the collapse of the Soviet Union. The authors highlight the polemics and disagreements that energize the field, discussing interpretations from Russian, émigré, and Western historiographies and showing how scholars diverge sharply in their understanding of key events, historical processes, and personalities. Each chapter contains a selection of primary sources and discussion questions, engaging with the voices and experiences of ordinary Soviet citizens and familiarizing students with the techniques of source criticism. Illustrated with images and maps throughout, this book is an essential introduction to twentieth-century Russian history.